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J Plant Physiol. 2018 Mar;222:28-38. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.01.002. Epub 2018 Jan 20.

An early-flowering einkorn wheat mutant with deletions of PHYTOCLOCK 1/LUX ARRHYTHMO and VERNALIZATION 2 exhibits a high level of VERNALIZATION 1 expression induced by vernalization.

Author information

1
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University, 4-1-1 Matsuoka-Kenjojima, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, 910-1195, Japan.
2
RIKEN, Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198, Japan.
3
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawaoiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan.
4
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University, 4-1-1 Matsuoka-Kenjojima, Eiheiji-cho, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, 910-1195, Japan. Electronic address: murai@fpu.ac.jp.

Abstract

Using heavy-ion beam mutagenesis of Triticum monococcum strain KU104-1, we identified a mutant that shows extra early-flowering; it was named extra early-flowering 3 (exe3). Here, we carried out expression analyses of clock-related genes, clock downstream genes and photoperiod pathway genes, and found that the clock component gene PHYTOCLOCK 1/LUX ARRHYTHMO (PCL1/LUX) was not expressed in exe3 mutant plants. A PCR analysis of DNA markers indicated that the exe3 mutant had a deletion of wheat PCL1/LUX (WPCL1), and that the WPCL1 deletion was correlated with the mutant phenotype in the segregation line. We confirmed that the original strain KU104-1 carried a mutation that produced a null allele of a flowering repressor gene VERNALIZATION 2 (VRN2). As a result, the exe3 mutant has both WPCL1 and VRN2 loss-of-function mutations. Analysis of plant development in a growth chamber showed that vernalization treatment accelerated flowering time in the exe3 mutant under short day (SD) as well as long day (LD) conditions, and the early-flowering phenotype was correlated with the earlier up-regulation of VRN1. The deletion of WPCL1 affects the SD-specific expression patterns of some clock-related genes, clock downstream genes and photoperiod pathway genes, suggesting that the exe3 mutant causes a disordered SD response. The present study indicates that VRN1 expression is associated with the biological clock and the VRN1 up-regulation is not influenced by the presence or absence of VRN2.

KEYWORDS:

Circadian clock gene; Early-flowering; Heavy-ion beam mutation; Triticum monococcum; Vernalization; Wheat

PMID:
29367015
DOI:
10.1016/j.jplph.2018.01.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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