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Appetite. 2018 Apr 1;123:367-389. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.019. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

A systematic review of attentional biases in disorders involving binge eating.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory Veterans Program, 12 Executive Park Drive, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.
2
Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), DoD, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA; Section on Growth and Obesity, Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), DHHS, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
3
Section on Development and Affective Neuroscience, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, DHHS, 15K North Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
4
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Center for Biobehavioral Health, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH, 43205, USA; Ohio State University, Department of Pediatrics, 700 Children's Drive, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.
5
Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), DoD, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA.
6
Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, 120 8th Street, Fargo, ND 58107, USA.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0874, La Jolla, CA, 92037, USA.
8
Section on Growth and Obesity, Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), DHHS, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.
9
Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), DoD, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD, 20814, USA; Section on Growth and Obesity, Program in Developmental Endocrinology and Genetics, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes of Health (NIH), DHHS, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. Electronic address: marian.tanofsky-kraff@usuhs.edu.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Attentional bias (AB) may be one mechanism contributing to the development and/or maintenance of disordered eating. AB has traditionally been measured using reaction time in response to a stimulus. Novel methods for AB measurement include eye tracking to measure visual fixation on a stimulus, and electroencephalography to measure brain activation in response to a stimulus. This systematic review summarizes, critiques, and integrates data on AB gathered using the above-mentioned methods in those with binge eating behaviors, including binge eating, loss of control eating, and bulimia nervosa.

METHOD:

Literature searches on PubMed and PsycInfo were conducted using combinations of terms related to binge eating and biobehavioral AB paradigms. Studies using AB paradigms with three categories of stimuli were included: food, weight/shape, and threat. For studies reporting means and standard deviations of group bias scores, Hedges' g effect sizes for group differences in AB were calculated.

RESULTS:

Fifty articles met inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Individuals who binge eat in the absence of compensatory behaviors show an increased AB to food cues, but few studies have examined such individuals' AB toward weight/shape and threatening stimuli. Individuals with bulimia nervosa consistently show an increased AB to shape/weight cues and socially threatening stimuli, but findings for AB to food cues are mixed.

DISCUSSION:

While there are important research gaps, preliminary evidence suggests that the combination of AB to disorder-specific cues (i.e., food and weight/shape) and AB toward threat may be a potent contributor to binge eating. This conclusion underscores previous findings on the interaction between negative affect and AB to disorder-specific cues. Recommendations for future research are provided.

KEYWORDS:

Attentional bias; Binge eating; Food; Shape; Social threat; Weight

PMID:
29366932
PMCID:
PMC5817030
DOI:
10.1016/j.appet.2018.01.019
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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