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Trends Immunol. 2018 May;39(5):359-366. doi: 10.1016/j.it.2017.12.006. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

HIV Reactivation after Partial Protection by Neutralizing Antibodies.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address: mattp@unimelb.edu.au.
2
Infection Analytics Program, Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of New South Wales Australia, Sydney, Australia.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne, The Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Australia; Melbourne Sexual Health Centre and Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Health, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia; ARC Centre of Excellence in Convergent Bio-Nano Science and Technology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. Electronic address: skent@unimelb.edu.au.

Abstract

It is widely thought that generating broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies (BnAbs) will protect humans against HIV, given promising data from in vitro experiments and in vivo macaque studies. The primary action of BnAbs is preventing cell-free virus from entering cells. Recent in vitro and macaque data suggest that BnAbs are less potent against cell-associated virus exposure. We speculate that BnAb-based suppression of HIV transmission, particularly if mediated by cell-cell transmission, may result in some exposed subjects carrying a form of latent (or 'occult') HIV infection. Such largely hidden HIV infections may subsequently reactivate when BnAb levels decline. This concept has implications for the achievement of long-term sterilizing immunity to HIV.

PMID:
29366547
DOI:
10.1016/j.it.2017.12.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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