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Drug Metab Dispos. 2018 Apr;46(4):336-345. doi: 10.1124/dmd.117.079723. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

Metabolic Profiling of the Novel Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α Inhibitor PT2385 In Vivo and In Vitro.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (C.X., X.G., D.S., Y.Z., K.W.K., F.J.G.); and Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People's Republic of China (X.G., X.Q.).
2
Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (C.X., X.G., D.S., Y.Z., K.W.K., F.J.G.); and Modern Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People's Republic of China (X.G., X.Q.) gonzalef@mail.nih.gov gaoxiaoxia@sxu.edu.cn.

Abstract

PT2385 is a first-in-class, selective small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α) developed for the treatment of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Preclinical results demonstrated that PT2385 has potent antitumor efficacy in mouse xenograft models of kidney cancer. It also has activity toward metabolic disease in a mouse model. However, no metabolism data are currently publically available. It is of great importance to characterize the metabolism of PT2385 and identify its effect on systemic homeostasis in mice. High-resolution mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was performed to profile the biotransformation of PT2385 and PT2385-induced changes in endogenous metabolites. Liver microsomes and recombinant drug-metabolizing enzymes were used to determine the mechanism of PT2385 metabolism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was employed to investigate the reason for the PT2385-induced bile acid dysregulation. A total of 12 metabolites of PT2385 was characterized, generated from hydroxylation (M1, M2), dihydroxylation and desaturation (M3, M4), oxidative-defluorination (M7), glucuronidation (M8), N-acetylcysteine conjugation (M9), and secondary methylation (M5, M6) and glucuronidation (M10, M11, and M12). CYP2C19 was the major contributor to the formation of M1, M2, and M7, UGT2B17 to M8, and UGT1A1/3 to M10-M12. The bile acid metabolites taurocholic acid and tauro-β-muricholic acid were elevated in serum and liver of mice after PT2385 treatment. Gene expression analysis further revealed that intestinal HIF-2α inhibition by PT2385 treatment upregulated the hepatic expression of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. This study provides metabolic data and an important reference basis for the safety evaluation and rational clinical application of PT2385.

PMID:
29363499
PMCID:
PMC5829541
DOI:
10.1124/dmd.117.079723
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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