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Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1730:317-328. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-7592-1_24.

NMR Analysis of Fecal Samples.

Author information

1
Natural Product Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
2
Center for Proteomics and Metabolomics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
3
Natural Product Laboratory, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl.

Abstract

Fecal analysis can generate data that is relevant for the exploration of gut microbiota and their relationship with the host. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an excellent tool for the profiling of fecal extracts as it enables the simultaneous detection of various metabolites from a broad range of chemical classes including, among others, short-chain fatty acids, organic acids, amino acids, bile acids, carbohydrates, amines, and alcohols. Compounds present at low μM concentrations can be detected and quantified with a single measurement. Moreover, NMR-based profiling requires a relatively simple sample preparation. Here we describe the three main steps of the general workflow for the NMR-based profiling of feces: sample preparation, NMR data acquisition, and data analysis.

KEYWORDS:

Data analysis; Feces; Gut microbiota; Identification; NMR spectroscopy; Sample preparation

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