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Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2017;2017:5023680. doi: 10.1155/2017/5023680. Epub 2017 Dec 7.

T Helper Lymphocyte and Mast Cell Immunohistochemical Pattern in Nonceliac Gluten Sensitivity.

Author information

1
Section of Gastroenterology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.
2
Section of Pathology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University "Aldo Moro", Bari, Italy.

Abstract

Background and Aims:

Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a gluten-related emerging condition. Since few data about NCGS histopathology is available, we assessed the markers of lymphocyte and innate immunity activation.

Materials and Methods:

We retrieved duodenal biopsy samples of patients with NCGS diagnosis according to the Salerno criteria. We selected specimens of positive (seropositive celiac disease/Marsh 1-2 stage) and negative (normal microscopic picture) controls. Immunohistochemistry for CD3 (intraepithelial lymphocytes-IELs), CD4 (T helper lymphocytes), CD8 (T cytotoxic lymphocytes), and CD1a/CD117 (Langerhans/mast cells) was performed. ANOVA plus Bonferroni's tests were used for statistical analysis.

Results:

Twenty NCGS, 16 celiac disease, and 16 negative controls were selected. CD3 in NCGS were higher than negative controls and lower than celiac disease (18.5 ± 6.4, 11.9 ± 2.8, and 40.8 ± 8.1 IELs/100 enterocytes; p < 0.001). CD4 were lower in NCGS than controls and celiac disease (31.0 ± 22.1, 72.5 ± 29.5, and 103.7 ± 15.7 cells/mm2; p < 0.001). CD8 in NCGS were similar to negative controls, but lower than celiac disease (14.0 ± 7.4 and 34.0 ± 7.1 IELs/100 enterocytes, p < 0.001). CD117 were higher in NCGS than celiac disease and negative controls (145.8 ± 49.9, 121.3 ± 13.1, and 113.5 ± 23.4 cells/mm2; p = 0.009).

Conclusions:

The combination of CD4 and CD117, as well as IEL characterization, may be useful to support a clinical diagnosis of NCGS.

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