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JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2018 Jan 12. pii: S1936-878X(17)31144-0. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.11.025. [Epub ahead of print]

Afterload Hypersensitivity in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block.

Author information

1
Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
2
Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
3
Ostlandske Hjertesenter, Moss, Norway.
4
Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
5
Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway.
6
Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
7
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
8
Institute for Surgical Research, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Center for Cardiological Innovation, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: otto.smiseth@ous-hf.no.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

This study sought to investigate the hypothesis that patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) are hypersensitive to elevated afterload.

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiological data suggest that LBBB can provoke heart failure in patients with hypertension.

METHODS:

In 11 asymptomatic patients with isolated LBBB and 11 age-matched control subjects, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and global longitudinal strain (GLS) were measured by echocardiography. Systolic arterial pressure was increased by combining pneumatic extremity constrictors and handgrip exercise. To obtain more insight into mechanisms of afterload response, 8 anesthetized dogs with left ventricular (LV) micromanometer and dimension crystals were studied during acutely induced LBBB and aortic constriction. Regional myocardial work was assessed by LV pressure-dimension analysis.

RESULTS:

Consistent with normal afterload dependency, elevation of systolic arterial pressure by 38 ± 12 mm Hg moderately reduced LVEF from 60 ± 4% to 54 ± 6% (p < 0.01) in control subjects. In LBBB patients, however, a similar blood pressure increase caused substantially larger reduction in LVEF (p < 0.01), from 56 ± 6% to 42 ± 7% (p < 0.01). There were similar findings for GLS. In the dog model, aortic constriction abolished septal shortening (p < 0.02), and septal work decreased to negative values (p < 0.01). Therefore, during elevated systolic pressure, the septum made no contribution to global LV work, as indicated by net negative work, and instead absorbed energy from work done by the LV lateral wall.

CONCLUSIONS:

Moderate elevation of arterial pressure caused marked reductions in LVEF and GLS in patients with LBBB. This reflects a cardiodepressive effect of elevated afterload in the dyssynchronous ventricle and was attributed to loss of septal function.

KEYWORDS:

dyssynchrony; heart failure; hypertension; left bundle branch block; myocardial work; strain

PMID:
29361486
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcmg.2017.11.025

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