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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2018 Apr;49:100-103. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2018.01.010. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Behavioral addictions in early-onset Parkinson disease are associated with DRD3 variants.

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Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Neurology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, Spain.
Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, Spain.
Department of Neurology, Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario Infanta Sofía, Madrid, Spain.
Department of Neurology, Hospital Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain.
Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain; Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER de Enfermedades Raras (CIBERER), ISCIII, Spain; Hospital Clínic and University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), ISCIII, Spain. Electronic address:



Impulse control disorders (ICDs) comprise abnormal behaviors frequently found in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) receiving antiparkinsonian medication. ICDs in PD would develop when dopaminergic treatment overstimulates the dopamine receptor D3 (DR3). Here we studied whether DR3 gene (DRD3) is associated to ICD in PD patients with early-onset (EOPD).


We performed association analysis of the rs6280 DRD3 single nucleotide variation (SNV) (Ser9Gly) in a clinical sample of 126 non early-onset PD (NEOPD) and 73 EOPD (age at onset < 45). ICD was evaluated using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders (QUIP) in PD.


In the total sample, we found that a younger onset of PD is linked to ICD traits with a potentially addictive reinforcement (ICDARs, behavioral addictions) (p = .017) and a trend for total ICDs (p = .078) while punding was not associated (p = .75). EOPD sample showed an increase of DRD3 C+ genotype for ICD (p = .022) and ICDARs (p = .043) but not for punding (p = .170). The post-hoc analyses including the time of evolution and Pramipexol or Ropinirole treatments, confirmed the independent effect of the DRD3 upon ICDs (p = .028) and ICDARs (p = .041) as well as the interaction between DRD3 and Pramipexol treatment upon ICDARs (OR = 4.60, 95% CI 1.20-17.632, p = .026). The NEOPD group showed no association between DRD3 and ICDs.


We found that behavioral addictions in PD are associated with an early onset of the disease, the rs6280 DRD3 SNV and the type of dopamine agonist. Further investigation in independent samples is warranted.


DRD3; Impulse control disorders; Parkinson

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