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Nutrients. 2018 Jan 23;10(2). pii: E112. doi: 10.3390/nu10020112.

Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis on Prospective Cohort Studies.

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The Research Centre on Public Health, University Milano-Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.
Department of International Health, FHML, CAPHRI, Maastricht University, 6229 Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 31008 Krakow, Poland.
Scientific Directorate, National Cancer Institute-IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy.
Division of Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Istituto Nazionale Tumori-IRCCS-"Fondazione G. Pascale", 80131 Naples, Italy.
Department of Biology and Biotechnology (DBB) "L. Spallanzani", University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
Department of Abdominal Oncology, National Cancer Institute, IRCCS-Foundation G. Pascale, 80131 Naples, Italy.
Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Institute-IRCCS, 33081 Aviano, Italy.


Aim: A dose-response meta-analysis was conducted in order to summarize the evidence from prospective cohort studies regarding the association between coffee intake and breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic search was performed in electronic databases up to March 2017 to identify relevant studies; risk estimates were retrieved from the studies and linear and non-linear dose-response analysis modelled by restricted cubic splines was conducted. A stratified and subgroup analysis by menopausal and estrogen/progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, smoking status and body mass index (BMI) were performed in order to detect potential confounders. Results: A total of 21 prospective studies were selected either for dose-response, the highest versus lowest category of consumption or subgroup analysis. The dose-response analysis of 13 prospective studies showed no significant association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk in the non-linear model. However, an inverse relationship has been found when the analysis was restricted to post-menopausal women. Consumption of four cups of coffee per day was associated with a 10% reduction in postmenopausal cancer risk (relative risk, RR 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.82 to 0.99). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results for all potential confounding factors examined. Conclusions: Findings from this meta-analysis may support the hypothesis that coffee consumption is associated with decreased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.


breast cancer; caffeine; coffee; dose-response; meta-analysis; postmenopausal; receptor

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