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Brain Inj. 2018;32(3):335-341. doi: 10.1080/02699052.2018.1426107. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Helmet use in preventing acute concussive symptoms in recreational vehicle related head trauma.

Author information

a Murdoch Children's Research Institute , Melbourne , Victoria , Australia.
b Department of Woman's and Child's Health, Department of Paediatrics , University of Padova , Padova , Italy.
c Emergency Department , Royal Children's Hospital , Melbourne , Victoria , Australia.
d Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine , Dentistry and Health Sciences, University of Melbourne , Melbourne , VIC , Australia.
e Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit , Mater Medical Research Institute , South Brisbane Queensland , Australia.
f Unit of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Public Health, Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences , University of Padova , Padova , Italy.



Helmets use has proved effective in reducing head trauma (HT) severity in children riding non-motorised recreational vehicles. Scant data are available on their role in reducing concussive symptoms in children with HT while riding non-motorised recreational vehicles such as bicycles, push scooters and skateboards (BSS). We aimed to investigate whether helmet use is associated with a reduction in acute concussive symptoms in children with BSS-related-HT.


Prospective study of children <18 years who presented with a BSS related-HT between April 2011 and January 2014 at a tertiary Paediatric Emergency Department (ED).


We included 190 patients. Median age 9.4 years (IQR 4.8-13.8). 66% were riding a bicycle, 23% a push scooter, and 11% a skateboard. 62% were wearing a helmet and 62% had at least one concussive symptom. Multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, and type of vehicle showed that patients without a helmet presented more likely with headache (adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) 2.54, 95% CI 1.27-5.06), vomiting (aOR 2.16, 95% CI 1.00-4.66), abnormal behaviour (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.08-5.06), or the presence of at least one concussive symptom (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.20-4.80).


In children presenting to the ED following a wheeled BSS-related HT helmet use was associated with less acute concussive symptoms.


aOR, adjusted odds ratio; APHIRST, Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study; BSS, bicycles, push scooters and skateboards; CI, confidence interval; CT, computed tomography; ED, emergency department; HT, head trauma; IQR, interquartile range; OR, odds ratio; RCH, Royal Children's Hospital; RV, recreational vehicle.


Head trauma; concussion; helmet; paediatric; traumatic brain injury

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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