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J Appl Physiol (1985). 1986 Jan;60(1):123-32.

Forced oscillatory impedance of the respiratory system at low frequencies.


Respiratory mechanical impedances were determined during voluntary apnea in five healthy subjects, by means of 0.25- to 5-Hz pseudo/random oscillations applied at the mouth. The total respiratory impedance was partitioned into pulmonary (ZL) and chest wall components with the esophageal balloon technique; corrections were made for the upper airway shunt impedance and the compressibility of alveolar gas. Neglect of these shunt effects did not qualitatively alter the frequency dependence of impedances but led to underestimations in impedance, especially in the chest wall resistance (Rw), which decreased by 20-30% at higher frequencies. The total resistance (Rrs) was markedly frequency dependent, falling from 0.47 +/- 0.06 (SD) at 0.25 Hz to 0.17 +/- 0.01 at 1 Hz and 0.15 +/- 0.01 kPa X l-1 X s at 5 Hz. The changes in Rrs were caused by the frequency dependence of Rw almost exclusively between 0.25 and 2 Hz and in most part between 2 and 5 Hz. The effective total respiratory (Crs,e) and pulmonary compliance were computed with corrections for pulmonary inertance derived from three- and five-parameter model fittings of ZL. Crs,e decreased from the static value (1.03 +/- 0.18 l X kPa-1) to a level of approximately 0.35 l X kPa-1 at 2-3 Hz; this change was primarily caused by the frequency-dependent behavior of chest wall compliance.

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