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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 Oct;72(10):1439-1446. doi: 10.1038/s41430-017-0079-5. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

New alkylresorcinol metabolites in spot urine as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake in a Swedish middle-aged population.

Author information

1
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden. Rikard.landberg@chalmers.se.
2
Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agriculture Science, P.O. Box 7051, Uppsala, SE-75007, Sweden. Rikard.landberg@chalmers.se.
3
Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, P.O. Box 210, Stockholm, SE-171-77, Sweden. Rikard.landberg@chalmers.se.
4
Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agriculture Science, P.O. Box 7051, Uppsala, SE-75007, Sweden.
5
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
6
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
7
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food and Agriculture, United Arab Emirates University, P.O. Box 17551, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
8
Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Cardiovascular epidemiology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
9
National Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

Studies on the health effects of whole grains typically use self-reported intakes which are prone to large measurement errors. Dietary biomarkers that can provide an objective measure of intake are needed. New alkylresorcinol (AR) metabolites (3,5-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA), 2-(3,5-dihydroxybenzamido)acetic acid (DHBA-glycine) and 5-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl) pentanoic acid (DHPPTA)) in 24 h urine samples have been suggested as biomarkers for whole grain (WG) wheat and rye intake but remain to be evaluated in spot urine samples.

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

The reproducibility of the new AR metabolites (DHCA, DHBA-glycine and DHPPTA) was investigated in 4 repeated samples over a period of 2 wk in spot urine from 40 Swedish men and women enroled in the SCAPIS-study, after adjustment of creatinine. Metabolite concentrations were correlated with total whole grain intake estimated during the same period.

RESULTS:

The medium-term reproducibility determined for DHCA, DHPPTA and DHBA-glycine varied from moderate to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.35-0.67). Moreover, DHCA and DHBA-glycine were independently associated with self-reported total WG intake (β = 0.18, P = 0.08 and β = 0.18, P = 0.02, respectively) and all metabolites except for DHPPA were higher among women.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study supports the idea of using AR metabolites in one or several spot urine samples as biomarkers of whole grain intake. These findings need to be confirmed in different populations.

PMID:
29352219
DOI:
10.1038/s41430-017-0079-5

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