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PLoS One. 2018 Jan 19;13(1):e0191049. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0191049. eCollection 2018.

Species richness of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) with implications on historical biogeography: An NDM/VNDM approach.

Author information

1
Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
2
The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
3
Department of Community Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
4
German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv), Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
5
Institute of Biological Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines.
6
Institute of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
7
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States of America.

Abstract

AIM:

A database based on distributional records of Eurasian Zephyrus hairstreaks (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclini) was compiled to analyse their areas of endemism (AoEs), species richness and distribution patterns, to explore their locations of past glacial refugia and dispersal routes.

METHODS:

Over 2000 Zephyrus hairstreaks occurrences are analysed using the NDM/VNDM algorithm, for the recognition of AoEs. Species richness was calculated by using the option 'Number of different classes' to count the different classes of a variable presented in each 3.0°×3.0° grid cell, and GIS software was used to visualize distribution patterns of endemic species.

RESULTS:

Centres of species richness of Zephyrus hairstreaks are situated in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (EQTP), Hengduan Mountain Region (HDMR) and the Qinling Mountain Region (QLMR). Latitudinal gradients in species richness show normal distribution with the peak between 25° N and 35° N in the temperate zone, gradually decreasing towards the poles. Moreover, most parts of central and southern China, especially the area of QLMR-EQTP-HDMR, were identified as AoEs that may have played a significant role as refugia during Quaternary global cooling. There are four major distributional patterns of Zephyrus hairstreaks in Eurasia: Sino-Japanese, Sino-Himalayan, high-mountain and a combined distribution covering all three patterns.

CONCLUSIONS:

Zephyrus hairstreaks probably originated at least 23-24 Myr ago in E. Asia between 25° N to 35° N in the temperate zone. Cenozoic orogenies caused rapid speciation of this tribe and extrusion of the Indochina block resulted in vicariance between the Sino-Japanese and the Sino-Himalayan patterns. The four distribution patterns provided two possible dispersal directions: Sino-Japanese dispersal and Sino-Himalayan dispersal.

PMID:
29351314
PMCID:
PMC5774756
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0191049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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