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J Inherit Metab Dis. 2018 Mar;41(2):197-208. doi: 10.1007/s10545-018-0136-9. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Biochemical changes and clinical outcomes in 34 patients with classic galactosemia.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. tatiana.n.yuzyuk@aruplab.com.
2
ARUP Laboratories, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT, 84108, USA. tatiana.n.yuzyuk@aruplab.com.
3
Division of Medical Genetics/Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
4
Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
6
ARUP Laboratories, 500 Chipeta Way, Salt Lake City, UT, 84108, USA.

Abstract

Impaired activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) causes galactosemia, an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism. Early initiation of a galactose-restricted diet can prevent or resolve neonatal complications. Despite therapy, patients often experience long-term complications including speech impairment, learning disabilities, and premature ovarian insufficiency in females. This study evaluates clinical outcomes in 34 galactosemia patients with markedly reduced GALT activity and compares outcomes between patients with different levels of mean galactose-1-phosphate in red blood cells (GAL1P) using logistic regression: group 1 (n = 13) GAL1P ≤1.7 mg/dL vs. group 2 (n = 21) GAL1P ≥ 2 mg/dL. Acute symptoms at birth were comparable between groups (p = 0.30) with approximately 50% of patients presenting with jaundice, liver failure, and failure-to-thrive. However, group 2 patients had significantly higher prevalence of negative long-term outcomes compared to group 1 patients (p = 0.01). Only one of 11 patients >3 yo in group 1 developed neurological and severe behavioral problems of unclear etiology. In contrast, 17 of 20 patients >3 yo in group 2 presented with one or more long-term complications associated with galactosemia. The majority of females ≥15 yo in this group also had impaired ovarian function with markedly reduced levels of anti-Müllerian hormone. These findings suggest that galactosemia patients with higher GAL1P levels are more likely to have negative long-term outcome. Therefore, evaluation of GAL1P levels on a galactose-restricted diet might be helpful in providing a prognosis for galactosemia patients with rare or novel genotypes whose clinical presentations are not well known.

PMID:
29350350
DOI:
10.1007/s10545-018-0136-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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