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Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:3072870. doi: 10.1155/2017/3072870. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

EEG Recording and Online Signal Processing on Android: A Multiapp Framework for Brain-Computer Interfaces on Smartphone.

Author information

Neuropsychology Lab, Department of Psychology, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.
Cluster of Excellence Hearing4All, Oldenburg, Germany.
Systems in Medical Engineering Lab, Department of Health Services Research, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.



Our aim was the development and validation of a modular signal processing and classification application enabling online electroencephalography (EEG) signal processing on off-the-shelf mobile Android devices. The software application SCALA (Signal ProCessing and CLassification on Android) supports a standardized communication interface to exchange information with external software and hardware.


In order to implement a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI) on the smartphone, we used a multiapp framework, which integrates applications for stimulus presentation, data acquisition, data processing, classification, and delivery of feedback to the user.

Main Results:

We have implemented the open source signal processing application SCALA. We present timing test results supporting sufficient temporal precision of audio events. We also validate SCALA with a well-established auditory selective attention paradigm and report above chance level classification results for all participants. Regarding the 24-channel EEG signal quality, evaluation results confirm typical sound onset auditory evoked potentials as well as cognitive event-related potentials that differentiate between correct and incorrect task performance feedback.


We present a fully smartphone-operated, modular closed-loop BCI system that can be combined with different EEG amplifiers and can easily implement other paradigms.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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