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Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 20;8(68):113129-113141. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.21991. eCollection 2017 Dec 22.

Association between cadmium exposure and diabetes mellitus risk: a prisma-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guizhou, China.
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guizhou, China.
Guiyang Hospital of Stomatology, Medical College, Zunyi Medical College, Guiyang, China.
Department of Urology, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guizhou, China.
Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
Contributed equally


Cadmium (Cd) is a pollutant with multiple adverse health effects: cancer, renal dysfunction, osteoporosis and fracture, and cardiovascular disease. Several population-based studies found an association between Cd and diabetes mellitus (DM), but this association is inconsistent with other research. We conducted meta-analysis to examine relationship between urinary/blood Cd exposure and DM risk. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases, and combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to evaluate said association. Meta-analysis showed that high U-Cd exposure is not correlated with DM risk (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 0.83-1.71), and high B-Cd exposure is also not associated with increased risk of DM (OR = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.84-1.62) in the general population. Subgroup and sensitivity analysis proved similar results, with little evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis suggests that high U-Cd/B-Cd exposure may not be risk factor for DM in general populations. However, large prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.


cadmium; diabetes mellitus

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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