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Oncotarget. 2017 Dec 11;8(68):112748-112760. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.23104. eCollection 2017 Dec 22.

Digital gene expression analysis in mice lung with coinfection of influenza and streptococcus pneumoniae.

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Department of Microbiology, West China School of Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
Department of Microbiology, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang 550004, China.
State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.


Influenza A virus (IAV) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) are two major upper respiratory tract pathogens that can also cause infection in polarized bronchial epithelial cells to exacerbate disease in coinfected individuals which may result in significant morbidity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we employed BALB/c ByJ mice inflected with SP, IAV, IAV followed by SP (IAV+SP) and PBS (Control) as models to survey the global gene expression using digital gene expression (DGE) profiling. We attempt to gain insights into the underlying genetic basis of this synergy at the expression level. Gene expression profiles were obtain using the Illimina/Hisseq sequencing technique, and further analyzed by enrichment analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway function. The hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining revealed different tissue changes in groups during which IAV+SP group showed the most severe cell apoptosis. Compared with Control, a total of 2731, 3221 and 3946 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in SP, IAV and IAV+SP respectively. Besides, sixty-two GO terms were identified by Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis, such as cell killing, biological regulation, response to stimulus, signaling, biological adhesion, enzyme regulator activity, receptor regulator activity and translation regulator activity. Pathway significant enrichment analysis indicated the dysregulation of multiple pathways, including apoptosis pathway. Among these, five selected genes were further verified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This study shows that infection with SP, IAV or IAV+SP induces apoptosis with different degrees which might provide insights into the molecular mechanisms to facilitate further research.


apoptosis; digital gene expression; influenza A virus; streptococcus pneumoniae

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST The authors of this paper have no conflicts of interest.

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