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J Ginseng Res. 2018 Jan;42(1):27-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.008. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Effects of processing method on the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of orally administered ginseng.

Author information

1
Institute of Special Wild Economic Animals and Plants, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Changchun, China.

Abstract

Background:

The use of different methods for the processing of ginseng can result in alterations in its medicinal properties and efficacy. White ginseng (WG), frozen ginseng (FG), and red ginseng (RG) are produced using different methods. WG, FG, and RG possess different pharmacological properties.

Methods:

WG, FG, and RG extracts and pure ginsenosides were administered to rats to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution characteristics of the following ginsenosides-Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd. The concentrations of the ginsenosides in the plasma and tissues were determined using UPLC-MS/MS.

Results:

The rate and extent of absorption of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd appeared to be affected by the different methods used in processing the ginseng samples. The areas under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd were significantly higher than those of the pure ginsenosides. In addition, the AUCs of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd were different for WG, FG, and RG. The amounts of Rg1, Re, Rd, and Rb1 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the tissues than those of the pure ginsenosides. The amounts of Re, Rb1, and Rd from the RG extract were significantly higher than those from the WG and FG extracts in the heart, lungs, and kidneys of the rats.

Conclusion:

Our results show that the use of different methods to process ginseng might affect the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of ginseng as well as the tissue concentrations of Rg1, Re, Rd, and Rb1.

KEYWORDS:

ginsenoside; oral bioavailability; pharmacokinetics; processing; tissue distribution

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