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PLoS One. 2018 Jan 18;13(1):e0189832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189832. eCollection 2018.

Rapidly progressive dementia: An eight year (2008-2016) retrospective study.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh, India.
2
Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:

Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) is an emergency in cognitive neurology, defined as cognitive impairment affecting the daily living activities developed over less than 1 year. This study investigated the profile of patients with rapidly progressive dementia at first presentation.

METHODS:

Retrospective case analysis was done in 187 patients with rapidly progressive dementia who presented to the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India from January 2008 to August 2016. Patients were divided into three groups: (1) Reversible (treatable) secondary dementia group, (2) Prion dementia group (sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), (3) Non-prion Neurodegenerative and vascular dementias (primary neurodegenerative and vascular dementia). Cases presenting with delirium secondary to metabolic, drug induced or septic causes and those with signs of meningitis were excluded.

RESULTS:

Secondary reversible causes formed the most common cause for RPD with immune mediated encephalitides, neoplastic and infectious disorders as the leading causes. The patients in this series had an younger onset of RPD. Infections presenting with RPD accounted for the most common cause in our series (39%) with SSPE (41%) as the leading cause followed by neurosyphilis (17.9%) and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (15.3%). Immune mediated dementias formed the second most common (18.1%) etiologic cause for RPD. The neurodegenerative dementias were third common cause for RPD in our series. Neoplastic disorders and immune mediated presented early (< 6 months) while neurodegenerative disorders presented later (> 6 months).

CONCLUSIONS:

Rapidly progressive dementia is an emergency in cognitive neurology with potentially treatable or reversible causes that should be sought for diligently.

PMID:
29346380
PMCID:
PMC5773088
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0189832
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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