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Genes Genet Syst. 2018 Jul 13;93(1):25-29. doi: 10.1266/ggs.17-00041. Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Direct interaction between VRN1 protein and the promoter region of the wheat FT gene.

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Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University.
Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University.


The wheat florigen gene Wheat FLOWERING LOCUS T (WFT, which is identical to VRN3) is an integrator of the vernalization, photoperiod and autonomous pathways in wheat flowering. Many studies have indicated that VERNALIZATION 1 (VRN1) directly or indirectly up-regulates WFT expression in leaves. VRN1 encodes an APETALA1/FRUITFULL-like MADS box transcription factor that is up-regulated by vernalization and aging, leading to promotion of flowering. In this study, the VRN1 protein was expressed as a His-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli and used in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The results from the EMSA indicated that the VRN1 protein directly binds to the CArG-box in the promoter region of WFT, suggesting the direct up-regulation of WFT by VRN1 in the leaves of wheat plants.


CArG-box; VRN1 protein; WFT; flowering; wheat (Triticum aestivum)

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