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J Virol. 2018 Mar 14;92(7). pii: e02213-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02213-17. Print 2018 Apr 1.

An Alternate Route for Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Entry Independent of AAV Receptor.

Author information

1
Grousbeck Gene Therapy Center, Schepens Eye Research Institute and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
2
Harvard Ph.D. Program in Virology, Division of Medical Sciences, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Ocular Genomics Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
5
Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.
6
Department of Microbiology, Molecular Genetics and Immunology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA.
7
Grousbeck Gene Therapy Center, Schepens Eye Research Institute and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Luk_Vandenberghe@MEEI.harvard.edu.
8
The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

Determinants and mechanisms of cell attachment and entry steer adeno-associated virus (AAV) in its utility as a gene therapy vector. Thus far, a systematic assessment of how diverse AAV serotypes engage their proteinaceous receptor AAVR (KIAA0319L) to establish transduction has been lacking, despite potential implications for cell and tissue tropism. Here, a large set of human and simian AAVs as well as in silico-reconstructed ancestral AAV capsids were interrogated for AAVR usage. We identified a distinct AAV capsid lineage comprised of AAV4 and AAVrh32.33 that can bind and transduce cells in the absence of AAVR, independent of the multiplicity of infection. Virus overlay assays and rescue experiments in nonpermissive cells demonstrate that these AAVs are unable to bind to or use the AAVR protein for entry. Further evidence for a distinct entry pathway was observed in vivo, as AAVR knockout mice were equally as permissive to transduction by AAVrh32.33 as wild-type mice upon systemic injection. We interestingly observe that some AAV capsids undergo a low level of transduction in the absence of AAVR, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that some capsids may have a multimodal entry pathway. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that AAVR usage is conserved among all primate AAVs except for those of the AAV4 lineage, and a non-AAVR pathway may be available to other serotypes. This work furthers our understanding of the entry of AAV, a vector system of broad utility in gene therapy.IMPORTANCE Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a nonpathogenic virus that is used as a vehicle for gene delivery. Here, we have identified several situations in which transduction is retained in both cell lines and a mouse model in the absence of a previously defined entry receptor, AAVR. Defining the molecular determinants of the infectious pathway of this highly relevant viral vector system can help refine future applications and therapies with this vector.

KEYWORDS:

AAV; adeno-associated virus; attachment; gene therapy; vector; viral entry; viral gene transfer; virus; virus receptor

PMID:
29343568
PMCID:
PMC5972900
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.02213-17
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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