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Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018 Jan 1;17:1533034617749419. doi: 10.1177/1533034617749419.

Line-Enhanced Deformable Registration of Pulmonary Computed Tomography Images Before and After Radiation Therapy With Radiation-Induced Fibrosis.

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1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.
2 Department of Radiology, Florida Hospital, Orlando, FL, USA.



The deformable registration of pulmonary computed tomography images before and after radiation therapy is challenging due to anatomic changes from radiation fibrosis. We hypothesize that a line-enhanced registration algorithm can reduce landmark error over the entire lung, including the irradiated regions, when compared to an intensity-based deformable registration algorithm.


Two intensity-based B-spline deformable registration algorithms of pre-radiation therapy and post-radiation therapy images were compared. The first was a control intensity-based algorithm that utilized computed tomography images without modification. The second was a line enhancement algorithm that incorporated a Hessian-based line enhancement filter prior to deformable image registration. Registrations were evaluated based on the landmark error between user-identified landmark pairs and the overlap ratio.


Twenty-one patients with pre-radiation therapy and post-radiation therapy scans were included. The median time interval between scans was 1.2 years (range: 0.3-3.3 years). Median landmark errors for the line enhancement algorithm were significantly lower than those for the control algorithm over the entire lung (1.67 vs 1.83 mm; P < .01), as well as within the 0 to 5 Gy (1.40 vs 1.57; P < .01) and >5 Gy (2.25 vs 3.31; P < .01) dose intervals. The median lung mask overlap ratio for the line enhancement algorithm (96.2%) was greater than that for the control algorithm (95.8%; P < .01). Landmark error within the >5 Gy dose interval demonstrated a significant inverse relationship with post-radiation therapy fibrosis enhancement after line enhancement filtration (Pearson correlation coefficient = -0.48; P = .03).


The line enhancement registration algorithm is a promising method for registering images before and after radiation therapy.


deformable registration; line enhancement; lung; radiation therapy

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