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Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2017 Dec 20;59(4):377-386. doi: 10.1515/folmed-2017-0038.

Cauda Equina Syndrome Due to Lumbar Disc Herniation: a Review of Literature.

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1Department of Spine Surgery and Deformities, European Interbalkan Center of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.
3Department of Medical Imaging, Allergology and Physical Medicine, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.


Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare neurologic condition that is caused by compression of the cauda equina. Cauda equina consists of spinal nerves L2-L5, S1-S5 and the coccygeal nerve. The compression of these nerve roots can be caused mainly by lumbar disc herniation (45% of all causes). The diagnosis consists of two critical points: a) detailed history and physical examination and b) MRI or CT. The gold standard of the treatment of this syndrome is the surgical approach in combination with the timing of onset of symptoms. The surgery as an emergency situation is recommended in the fi rst 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment leads to a poor prognosis of CES.


cauda equina syndrome; low back pain; lumbar disc herniation; lumbar disc prolapse; neurological disorders in the spinal cord

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