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Phys Rev Lett. 2017 Jul 28;119(4):047001. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.047001. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Generic Theory for Majorana Zero Modes in 2D Superconductors.

Chan C1,2, Zhang L1,2, Poon TFJ1,2, He YP1,2, Wang YQ1,2, Liu XJ1,2,3.

Author information

1
International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.
2
Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871, China.
3
Institute for Quantum Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Abstract

It is well known that non-Abelian Majorana zero modes (MZM) are located at vortex cores in a p_{x}+𝒾p_{y} topological superconductor, which can be realized in a 2D spin-orbit coupled system with a single Fermi surface and by proximity coupling to an s-wave superconductor. Here we show that the existence of non-Abelian MZMs is unrelated to the bulk topology of a 2D superconductor, and propose that such exotic modes can result in a much broader range of superconductors, being topological or trivial. For a generic 2D system with multiple Fermi surfaces that is gapped out by superconducting pairings, we show that at least a single MZM survives if there are only an odd number of Fermi surfaces of which the corresponding superconducting orders have vortices; such a MZM is protected by an emergent Chern-Simons invariant, irrespective of the bulk topology of the superconductor. This result enriches new experimental schemes for realizing non-Abelian MZMs. In particular, we propose a minimal scheme to realize the MZMs in a 2D superconducting Dirac semimetal with trivial bulk topology, which can be well achieved based on recent cold-atom experiments.

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