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Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 16;8(1):852. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-14943-3.

Cigarette smoking is associated with an altered vaginal tract metabolomic profile.

Author information

1
Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
3
Metabolon Inc, Durham, NC, USA.
4
Department of Ecology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.
5
Department of Behavioral and Community Health, University of Maryland School of Public Health, College Park, MD, USA.
6
Truth Initiative, Washington DC, USA.
7
Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
8
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
9
Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD, USA.
10
Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. carl.yeoman@montana.edu.
11
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA. carl.yeoman@montana.edu.
12
Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. rbrotman@som.umaryland.edu.
13
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. rbrotman@som.umaryland.edu.

Abstract

Cigarette smoking has been associated with both the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a vaginal microbiota lacking protective Lactobacillus spp. As the mechanism linking smoking with vaginal microbiota and BV is unclear, we sought to compare the vaginal metabolomes of smokers and non-smokers (17 smokers/19 non-smokers). Metabolomic profiles were determined by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene populations revealed samples clustered into three community state types (CSTs) ---- CST-I (L. crispatus-dominated), CST-III (L. iners-dominated) or CST-IV (low-Lactobacillus). We identified 607 metabolites, including 12 that differed significantly (q-value < 0.05) between smokers and non-smokers. Nicotine, and the breakdown metabolites cotinine and hydroxycotinine were substantially higher in smokers, as expected. Among women categorized to CST-IV, biogenic amines, including agmatine, cadaverine, putrescine, tryptamine and tyramine were substantially higher in smokers, while dipeptides were lower in smokers. These biogenic amines are known to affect the virulence of infective pathogens and contribute to vaginal malodor. Our data suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with differences in important vaginal metabolites, and women who smoke, and particularly women who are also depauperate for Lactobacillus spp., may have increased susceptibilities to urogenital infections and increased malodor.

PMID:
29339821
PMCID:
PMC5770521
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-14943-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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