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Infect Dis Ther. 2018 Mar;7(1):147-159. doi: 10.1007/s40121-017-0184-8. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Pharmacokinetics, Antiviral Activity, and Safety of Rilpivirine in Pregnant Women with HIV-1 Infection: Results of a Phase 3b, Multicenter, Open-Label Study.

Author information

1
Triple O Research Institute PA, West Palm Beach, FL, USA. drtripleo@aol.com.
2
University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
3
University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
4
BICER Consulting & Research, Antwerp, Belgium.
5
Janssen Research & Development, Beerse, Belgium.
6
Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Physiologic changes during pregnancy may impact the pharmacokinetics of drugs. In addition, efficacy and safety/tolerability concerns have been identified for some antiretroviral agents.

METHODS:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected pregnant women (18-26 weeks gestation) receiving the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor rilpivirine 25 mg once daily were enrolled in this phase 3b, open-label study examining the impact of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine when it is given in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Blood samples (collected over the 24-h dosing interval) to assess total and unbound rilpivirine plasma concentrations were obtained during the second and third trimesters (24-28 and 34-38 weeks gestation, respectively) and 6-12 weeks postpartum. Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived using noncompartmental analysis and compared (pregnancy versus postpartum) using linear mixed effects modeling. Antiviral and immunologic response and safety were assessed.

RESULTS:

Nineteen women were enrolled; 15 had evaluable pharmacokinetic results. Total rilpivirine exposure was 29-31% lower during pregnancy versus postpartum; differences were less pronounced for unbound (pharmacodynamically active) rilpivirine. At study entry, 12/19 (63.2%) women were virologically suppressed; 10/12 (83.3%) women were suppressed at the postpartum visit. Twelve infants were born to the 12 women who completed the study (7 discontinued); no perinatal viral transmission was observed among 10 infants with available data. Rilpivirine was generally safe and well tolerated in women and infants exposed in utero.

CONCLUSION:

Despite decreased rilpivirine exposure during pregnancy, treatment was effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission and suppressing HIV-1 RNA in pregnant women. Results suggest that rilpivirine 25 mg once daily, as part of individualized combination antiretroviral therapy, may be an appropriate option for HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00855335.

KEYWORDS:

HIV; Pharmacokinetics; Pregnancy; Rilpivirine

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