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Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 15;8(1):728. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-18601-6.

Functionalisation of Detonation Nanodiamond for Monodispersed, Soluble DNA-Nanodiamond Conjugates Using Mixed Silane Bead-Assisted Sonication Disintegration.

Author information

1
The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Rd, Kings Cross, London, NW1 1AT, UK. r.j.edgington@gmail.com.
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305, United States. r.j.edgington@gmail.com.
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK. r.j.edgington@gmail.com.
4
The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Rd, Kings Cross, London, NW1 1AT, UK.
5
Department of Physics, King's College London, London, WC2R 5 2LS, United Kingdom.
6
Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK.
7
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305, United States.
8
Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3TA, UK.
9
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, 94305, United States. nmelosh@stanford.edu.
10
The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Rd, Kings Cross, London, NW1 1AT, UK. andreas.schaefer@crick.ac.uk.
11
Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK. andreas.schaefer@crick.ac.uk.

Abstract

Nanodiamonds have many attractive properties that make them suitable for a range of biological applications, but their practical use has been limited because nanodiamond conjugates tend to aggregate in solution during or after functionalisation. Here we demonstrate the production of DNA-detonation nanodiamond (DNA-DND) conjugates with high dispersion and solubility using an ultrasonic, mixed-silanization chemistry protocol based on the in situ Bead-Assisted Sonication Disintegration (BASD) silanization method. We use two silanes to achieve these properties: (1) 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methylphosphonate (THPMP); a negatively charged silane that imparts high zeta potential and solubility in solution; and (2) (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES); a commonly used functional silane that contributes an amino group for subsequent bioconjugation. We target these amino groups for covalent conjugation to thiolated, single-stranded DNA oligomers using the heterobifunctional crosslinker sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC). The resulting DNA-DND conjugates are the smallest reported to date, as determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The functionalisation method we describe is versatile and can be used to produce a wide variety of soluble DND-biomolecule conjugates.

PMID:
29335424
PMCID:
PMC5768878
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-18601-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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