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Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Dec;9(Suppl 1):S105-S109. doi: 10.4103/pr.pr_81_17.

Therapeutic Significance of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) ink Extract: A Biomedical Approach.

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Department of Marine Biotechnology, AMET University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.



The squid ink extract is well known for its biomedical properties.


In this study, squid Loligo vulgaris was collected from Tuticorin costal water, Bay of Bengal, India.

Materials and Methods:

Proximate composition of the crude squid ink was studied and found to have protein as the major component over lipid and carbohydrates. Further, bioactive fractions of squid ink were extracted with ethanol, and therapeutic applications such as hemolytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties were analyzed using standard methods.


In hemolytic assay, the squid ink extract exhibited a maximum hemolytic activity of 128 hemolytic unit against tested erythrocytes. In DPPH assay, the ethanolic extract of squid ink has exhibited an antioxidant activity of 83.5%. The squid ink was found to be potent antibacterial agent against the pathogens tested. 200 μL of L. vulgaris ink extract showed remarkable antibacterial activity as zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (28 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The 68.9% inhibition of protein denaturation by the squid ink extract indicated that it has very good in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the squid ink indicated the presence of functional groups such as 1° and 2° amines, amides, alkynes (terminal), alkenes, aldehydes, nitriles, alkanes, aliphatic amines, carboxylic acids, and alkyl halides, which complements the biochemical background of therapeutic applications.


Hence, results of this study concluded that the ethanolic extract of L. vulgaris has many therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.


Squid ink is very high in a number of important nutrients. It's particularly high in antioxidants for instance, which as well all know help to protect the cells and the heart against damage from free radicals. In the present study, the squid ink have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties and can be considered as promising the developing the drugs. Abbreviations Used: DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, FTIR: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, BSA: Bovine Serum Albumin.


Anti-inflammatory; DPPH; Loligo vulgaris; antimicrobial; hemolytic activity; ink extracts

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