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Planta Med. 2018 Feb;84(3):139-152. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-124087. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Ginsenoside Rh1: A Systematic Review of Its Pharmacological Properties.

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Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam.
Huy Cuong Pharmaceutical Company, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Hue University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue, Vietnam.
Online Research Club (, Nagasaki, Japan.
Faculty of Medicine, Aswan University, Aswan, Egypt.
Tien Giang General Hospital, Tien Giang, Vietnam.
Vo Truong Toan University, Hau Giang, Vietnam.
Faculty of Pharmacy, Future University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt.
School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea.
Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.
Evidence Based Medicine Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Department of Clinical Product Development, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Leading Graduate School Program, and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.


Ginsenoside Rh1 is one of major bioactive compounds extracted from red ginseng, which has been increasingly used for enhancing cognition and physical health worldwide. The objective of this study was to review the pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 in a systematic manner. We performed searches on eight electronic databases including MEDLINE (Pubmed), Scopus, Google Scholar, POPLINE, Global Health Library, Virtual Health Library, the System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, and the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report to select the original research publications reporting the biological and pharmacological effects of ginsenoside Rh1 from in vitro and in vivo studies regardless of publication language and study design. Upon applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we included a total of 57 studies for our systemic review. Ginsenoside Rh1 exhibited the potent characteristics of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and positive effects on the nervous system. The cytotoxic effects of ginsenoside Rh1 were dependent on different types of cell lines. Other pharmacological effects including estrogenic, enzymatic, anti-microorganism activities, and cardiovascular effects have been mentioned, but the results were considerably diverged. A higher quality of evidence on clinical trial studies is highly recommended to confirm the consistent efficacy of ginsenoside Rh1.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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