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PLoS One. 2018 Jan 12;13(1):e0190581. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0190581. eCollection 2018.

Evaluating the efficacy of switching from lamivudine plus adefovir to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate monotherapy in lamivudine-resistant stable hepatitis B patients.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University College of Medicine Daegu, South Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, Keimyung University school of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan, South Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu School of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Gyeongju, South Korea.



The efficacy of switching to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy from lamivudine (LAM) plus adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) combination therapy (stable switching) in patients with LAM-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is not clear.


In this non-inferiority trial, patients with LAM-resistant CHB and undetectable serum HBV DNA (<20 IU/mL) for >6 months after initiating LAM+ADV combination therapy were randomized (1:2) either to continue the combination therapy (LAM+ADV group, n = 58) or switched to TDF monotherapy (TDF group, n = 111). They were followed-up with serum biochemistry tests and HBV DNA measurement at 12-week intervals for 96 weeks. The primary endpoint of this study was the proportion of patients with viral reactivation at week 96.


Patients with CHB enrolled in this study (n = 169) included 74 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis. In total, 9 patients (4 in the LAM+ADV group and 5 in the TDF group) dropped-out from the study. After a mean follow-up period of 96 weeks, the proportion of HBV reactivation observed was 6.8% (4/58) in the LAM+ADV group and 4.5% (5/111) in the TDF group by using intention-to-treat analysis (difference, -2.3%; 95% CI, -9.84-5.24%). None of the subjects in either group experienced viral reactivation based on per protocol analysis. No serious adverse reactions were observed. In the subgroup analysis for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before and after treatment, decreased eGFR was observed only in the TDF group with cirrhosis (85.22 vs. 79.83 mL/min/1.73 m2, p = 0.000).


Stable switching to TDF monotherapy yielded non-inferior results at 96 weeks compared to the results obtained with LAM+ADV combination therapy in patients with LAM-resistant CHB and undetectable HBV DNA. However, TDF monotherapy in patients with cirrhosis requires close attention with respect to renal function.


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