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Sensors (Basel). 2018 Jan 12;18(1). pii: E207. doi: 10.3390/s18010207.

Current Technologies of Electrochemical Immunosensors: Perspective on Signal Amplification.

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Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, College of Health Science, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea.
Department of Genetic Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon City, Gyunggi Do 164-19, Korea.
Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon 34824, Korea.
Department of Medical IT Marketing, College of Health Industry, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea.
Department of Food and Nutrition, Eulji University, Seongnam 13135, Korea.
Fermentation Science Program, School of Agribusiness and Agriscience, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN 37132, USA.
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, P.O. Box 102, Yuseong, Daejon 34113, Korea.
Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue Center for Cancer Research, Purdue University, 225 South University Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, P.O. Box 102, Yuseong, Daejon 34113, Korea.


An electrochemical immunosensor employs antibodies as capture and detection means to produce electrical charges for the quantitative analysis of target molecules. This sensor type can be utilized as a miniaturized device for the detection of point-of-care testing (POCT). Achieving high-performance analysis regarding sensitivity has been one of the key issues with developing this type of biosensor system. Many modern nanotechnology efforts allowed for the development of innovative electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity by employing various nanomaterials that facilitate the electron transfer and carrying capacity of signal tracers in combination with surface modification and bioconjugation techniques. In this review, we introduce novel nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotube, graphene, indium tin oxide, nanowire and metallic nanoparticles) in order to construct a high-performance electrode. Also, we describe how to increase the number of signal tracers by employing nanomaterials as carriers and making the polymeric enzyme complex associated with redox cycling for signal amplification. The pros and cons of each method are considered throughout this review. We expect that these reviewed strategies for signal enhancement will be applied to the next versions of lateral-flow paper chromatography and microfluidic immunosensor, which are considered the most practical POCT biosensor platforms.


electrochemical immunosensor; electrode scaffold; labeling techniques; nanomaterials; point-of-care testing; signal amplification

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