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J Exerc Rehabil. 2017 Dec 27;13(6):704-710. doi: 10.12965/jer.1735110.555. eCollection 2017 Dec.

Inter- and intrarater reliability of goniometry and hand held dynamometry for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.

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Division for Shoulder Surgery and Sports Orthopedics, Helios Clinic, Warburg/Westfalen, Germany.
School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Illinois State University, Normal, IL, USA.
Department of Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
Tunisian Researches Laboratory "Sport Performance Optimization", Tunis, Tunisia.
SportsClinic Halle, Center for Joint Surgery, Halle (Saale), Germany.


The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and interrater reliability of measuring shoulder range of motion (ROM) and strength among patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). Twenty-five patients (14 female patients; mean age, 60.4± 7.84 years) diagnosed with SAIS were assessed to determine the intrarater reliability for glenohumeral ROM. Twenty-five patients (16 female patients; mean age, 60.4± 7.80 years) and 76 asymptomatic volunteers (52 female volunteers; mean age, 29.4± 14.1 years) were assessed for interrater reliability. Dependent variables were active shoulder ROM and isometric strength. Intrarater reliability was fair-to-excellent for the SAIS patients (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.52-0.97; standard error of measurement [SEM], 4.4°-9.9° N; coefficient of variation [CV], 7.1%-44.9%). Based on the ICC, 11 of 12 parameters (92%) displayed an excellent reliability (ICC> 0.75). The interrater reliability showed fair-to-excellent results (SAIS patients: ICC, 0.13-0.98; SEM, 2.3°-8.8°; CV, 3.6%-37.0%; controls: ICC, 0.11-0.96; SEM, 3.0°-35.4°; CV, 5.6%-26.4%). In accordance with the intrarater reliability, glenohumeral adduction ROM was the only parameter with an ICC below 0.75 for both samples. Painful shoulder ROM in the SAIS patients showed no influence on the quality of reliability for measurement. Therefore, these protocols should be considered reliable assessment techniques in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of painful shoulder conditions such as SAIS.


Goniometry; Hand-held dynamometry; Reliability; Shoulder

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICT OF INTEREST No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

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