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J Nucl Med. 2018 May;59(5):795-802. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.117.203539. Epub 2018 Jan 11.

Targeted α-Therapy of Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer with 225Ac-PSMA-617: Swimmer-Plot Analysis Suggests Efficacy Regarding Duration of Tumor Control.

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Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany
Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Department of Urology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; and.
Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.


The aim of this evaluation was to identify the first indicators of efficacy for 225Ac-labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-617 therapy in a retrospectively analyzed group of patients. Methods: Forty patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were selected for treatment with three 100 kBq/kg cycles of 225Ac-PSMA-617 at 2-mo intervals. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and blood cell count were measured every 4 wk. PSMA PET/CT or PSMA SPECT/CT were used for baseline staging and imaging follow-up at month 6. Follow-up included the duration of PSA response and radiologic progression-free survival at month 6. Patient histories were reviewed for the duration of previous treatment lines, and a swimmer plot was used to intraindividually compare the duration of tumor control by PSMA therapy versus prior treatment modalities. Results: Thirty-one of 40 patients were treated per protocol. Five patients discontinued treatment because of nonresponse, and 4 because of xerostomia. Of the 38 patients surviving at least 8 wk, 24 (63%) had a PSA decline of more than 50%, and 33 (87%) had a PSA response of any degree. The median duration of tumor control under 225Ac-PSMA-617 last-line therapy was 9.0 mo; 5 patients had an enduring response of more than 2 y. Because all patients had advanced disease, this result compares favorably with the tumor control rates associated with earlier-phase disease; the most common preceding first-, second-, third-, and fourth-line therapies were abiraterone (median duration 10.0 mo), docetaxel (6.5 mo), enzalutamide (6.5 mo), and cabazitaxel (6.0 mo), respectively. Conclusion: A positive response for surrogate parameters demonstrates remarkable antitumor activity for 225Ac-PSMA-617. Swimmer-plot analysis indicates a promising duration of tumor control, especially considering the unfavorable prognostic profile of the selected advanced-stage patients. Xerostomia was the main reason patients discontinued therapy or refused additional administrations and was in the same dimension as nonresponse; this finding indicates that further modifications of the treatment regimen with regard to side effects might be necessary to further enhance the therapeutic range.


225Ac; Ac-225; PSMA; prostate cancer; targeting therapy


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