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Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 11;8(1):507. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-19030-1.

Comparison of Bladder Carcinogens in the Urine of E-cigarette Users Versus Non E-cigarette Using Controls.

Author information

1
The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Urology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
2
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Chemistry, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
4
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
5
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
6
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
7
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
8
The University of Pittsburgh, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
9
The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Urology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. tarintv@upmc.edu.
10
The University of Pittsburgh, Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. tarintv@upmc.edu.
11
The University of Pittsburgh, McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. tarintv@upmc.edu.

Abstract

Electronic cigarette (EC) use is gaining popularity as a substitute for conventional smoking due to the perception and evidence it represents a safer alternative. In contrast to the common perception amongst users that ECs represent no risk initial studies have revealed a complex composition of e-cigarette liquids. Conventional cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for developing bladder cancer and prior reports raise concern some of those causative compounds may exist in EC liquids or vapor. Urine samples were collected from 13 e-cigarette using subjects and 10 non e-cigarette using controls. Five known bladder carcinogens that are either present in conventional cigarettes, products of combustion, or solvents believed to be used in some e-cigarette formulations were quantified by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Analysis of e-cigarette user urine revealed the presence of two carcinogenic compounds, o-toluidine and 2-naphthylamine, at a mean 2.3 and 1.3 fold higher concentration (p-value of 0.0013 and 0.014 respectively). Many of these subjects (9/13) were long term nonsmokers (>12 months). Further study is needed to clarify the safety profile of e-cigarettes and their contribution to the development of bladder cancer given the greater concentration of carcinogenic aromatic amines in the urine of e-cigarette users.

PMID:
29323232
PMCID:
PMC5765148
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-19030-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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