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Cell Metab. 2018 Jan 9;27(1):68-83. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.12.002.

Anatomical, Physiological, and Functional Diversity of Adipose Tissue.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
2
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, 845 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA.
3
Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, 266 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address: valerie.horsley@yale.edu.
4
Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, 845 Health Sciences Road, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Sue and Bill Gross Stem Cell Research Center, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA; Center for Complex Biological Systems, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. Electronic address: plikus@uci.edu.

Abstract

Adipose tissue depots can exist in close association with other organs, where they assume diverse, often non-traditional functions. In stem cell-rich skin, bone marrow, and mammary glands, adipocytes signal to and modulate organ regeneration and remodeling. Skin adipocytes and their progenitors signal to hair follicles, promoting epithelial stem cell quiescence and activation, respectively. Hair follicles signal back to adipocyte progenitors, inducing their expansion and regeneration, as in skin scars. In mammary glands and heart, adipocytes supply lipids to neighboring cells for nutritional and metabolic functions, respectively. Adipose depots adjacent to skeletal structures function to absorb mechanical shock. Adipose tissue near the surface of skin and intestine senses and responds to bacterial invasion, contributing to the body's innate immune barrier. As the recognition of diverse adipose depot functions increases, novel therapeutic approaches centered on tissue-specific adipocytes are likely to emerge for a range of cancers and regenerative, infectious, and autoimmune disorders.

KEYWORDS:

adipose stem cells; bone marrow; dermal adipose; hair follicle; mammary gland; mesenteric adipose; regeneration; skin; stem cells; wound healing

PMID:
29320711
DOI:
10.1016/j.cmet.2017.12.002
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