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Protein Cell. 2018 Mar;9(3):283-297. doi: 10.1007/s13238-017-0499-y. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

Targeted elimination of mutant mitochondrial DNA in MELAS-iPSCs by mitoTALENs.

Author information

1
Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China.
2
Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China.
3
Center of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China.
4
Yunnan Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research, Institute of Primate Translational Medicine, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, China.
5
Disease Modeling and Therapeutics Laboratory, A*STAR Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive Proteos, Singapore, 138673, Singapore.
6
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117543, Singapore.
7
Center of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, 100191, China. yuyang5012@hotmail.com.
8
Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, South China Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510530, China. li_xiaoping@gibh.ac.cn.
9
Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China. yongfan011@gzhmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Mitochondrial diseases are maternally inherited heterogeneous disorders that are primarily caused by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Depending on the ratio of mutant to wild-type mtDNA, known as heteroplasmy, mitochondrial defects can result in a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Mitochondria-targeted endonucleases provide an alternative avenue for treating mitochondrial disorders via targeted destruction of the mutant mtDNA and induction of heteroplasmic shifting. Here, we generated mitochondrial disease patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (MiPSCs) that harbored a high proportion of m.3243A>G mtDNA mutations and caused mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and stroke-like episodes (MELAS). We engineered mitochondrial-targeted transcription activator-like effector nucleases (mitoTALENs) and successfully eliminated the m.3243A>G mutation in MiPSCs. Off-target mutagenesis was not detected in the targeted MiPSC clones. Utilizing a dual fluorescence iPSC reporter cell line expressing a 3243G mutant mtDNA sequence in the nuclear genome, mitoTALENs displayed a significantly limited ability to target the nuclear genome compared with nuclear-localized TALENs. Moreover, genetically rescued MiPSCs displayed normal mitochondrial respiration and energy production. Moreover, neuronal progenitor cells differentiated from the rescued MiPSCs also demonstrated normal metabolic profiles. Furthermore, we successfully achieved reduction in the human m.3243A>G mtDNA mutation in porcine oocytes via injection of mitoTALEN mRNA. Our study shows the great potential for using mitoTALENs for specific targeting of mutant mtDNA both in iPSCs and mammalian oocytes, which not only provides a new avenue for studying mitochondrial biology and disease but also suggests a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of mitochondrial disease, as well as the prevention of germline transmission of mutant mtDNA.

KEYWORDS:

MELAS; TALEN; iPSCs; mitochondria

PMID:
29318513
PMCID:
PMC5829275
DOI:
10.1007/s13238-017-0499-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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