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Front Cardiovasc Med. 2017 Dec 19;4:80. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2017.00080. eCollection 2017.

Patrolling Mechanics of Non-Classical Monocytes in Vascular Inflammation.

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Division of Inflammation Biology, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA, United States.
Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Rheumatology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany.


Non-classical monocytes have emerged as the preeminent vascular housekeepers. Continuous intravascular screening is enabled by slow patrolling on the endothelium and allows a rapid response to local perturbations. Intravital imaging has been crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and migratory phenotype of patrolling. In this review, we discuss technical requirements of intravital microscopy such as imaging modalities, labeling strategies, and data analysis. We further focus on patrolling kinetics and adhesion receptors in different organs and vascular beds including arteries during homeostasis and vascular inflammation and define pertinent questions in the field.


arteries; arteriosclerosis; microcirculation; monocytes; patrolling; venules

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