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Front Chem. 2017 Dec 22;5:125. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2017.00125. eCollection 2017.

Comprehensive Quality Assessment Based Specific Chemical Profiles for Geographic and Tissue Variation in Gentiana rigescens Using HPLC and FTIR Method Combined with Principal Component Analysis.

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Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming, China.
College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, China.


Roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of Longdan (Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl) were collected from six geographic origins of Yunnan Province (n = 240) to implement the quality assessment based on contents of gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside and swertiamarin and chemical profile using HPLC-DAD and FTIR method combined with principal component analysis (PCA). The content of gentiopicroside (major iridoid glycoside) was the highest in G. rigescens, regardless of tissue and geographic origin. The level of swertiamarin was the lowest, even unable to be detected in samples from Kunming and Qujing. Significant correlations (p < 0.05) between gentiopicroside, loganic acid, sweroside, and swertiamarin were found at inter- or intra-tissues, which were highly depended on geographic origins, indicating the influence of environmental conditions on the conversion and transport of secondary metabolites in G. rigescens. Furthermore, samples were reasonably classified as three clusters along large producing areas where have similar climate conditions, characterized by carbohydrates, phenols, benzoates, terpenoids, aliphatic alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, and so forth. The present work provided global information on the chemical profile and contents of major iridoid glycosides in G. rigescens originated from six different origins, which is helpful for controlling quality of herbal medicines systematically.


FTIR; Gentiana rigescens; HPLC; principal component analysis; quality assessment

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