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World J Orthop. 2017 Dec 18;8(12):874-880. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v8.i12.874. eCollection 2017 Dec 18.

Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy using Transforaminal Endoscopic Spine System technique: Pitfalls that a beginner should avoid.

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Spine Department and Deformities, Interbalkan European Medical Center, Thessaloniki 55535, Greece.
Department of Medical Laboratories, Technological Educational Institute of Athens, Athens 12243, Greece.
First Orthopaedic Department of "Aristotle University of Thessaloniki", "Papanikolaou" Hospital, Exohi, Thessaloniki 57010, Greece.


Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy (TPED) is a minimally invasive technique mainly used for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation from a lateral approach. Performed under local anesthesia, TPED has been proven to be a safe and effective technique which has been also associated with shorter rehabilitation period, reduced blood loss, trauma, and scar tissue compared to conventional procedures. However, the procedure should be performed by a spine surgeon experienced in the specific technique and capable of recognizing or avoiding various challenging conditions. In this review, pitfalls that a novice surgeon has to be mindful of, are reported and analyzed.


Lumbar disk herniation; Pitfalls; Spine surgery; Transforaminal Endoscopic Spine System; Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy

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Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no conflict of interests.

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