Send to

Choose Destination
J Bacteriol. 2018 Mar 26;200(8). pii: e00703-17. doi: 10.1128/JB.00703-17. Print 2018 Apr 15.

A Multimodal Strategy Used by a Large c-di-GMP Network.

Author information

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.
Department of Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
Contributed equally


The Pseudomonas fluorescens genome encodes more than 50 proteins predicted to be involved in c-di-GMP signaling. Here, we demonstrated that, tested across 188 nutrients, these enzymes and effectors appeared capable of impacting biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis of network members across ∼50 nutrient conditions indicates that altered gene expression can explain a subset of but not all biofilm formation responses to the nutrients. Additional organization of the network is likely achieved through physical interaction, as determined via probing ∼2,000 interactions by bacterial two-hybrid assays. Our analysis revealed a multimodal regulatory strategy using combinations of ligand-mediated signals, protein-protein interaction, and/or transcriptional regulation to fine-tune c-di-GMP-mediated responses. These results create a profile of a large c-di-GMP network that is used to make important cellular decisions, opening the door to future model building and the ability to engineer this complex circuitry in other bacteria.IMPORTANCE Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a key signaling molecule regulating bacterial biofilm formation, and many microbes have up to dozens of proteins that make, break, or bind this dinucleotide. A major open issue in the field is how signaling specificity is conferred in the unpartitioned space of a bacterial cell. Here, we took a systems approach, using mutational analysis, transcriptional studies, and bacterial two-hybrid analysis to interrogate this network. We found that a majority of enzymes are capable of impacting biofilm formation in a context-dependent manner, and we revealed examples of two or more modes of regulation (i.e., transcriptional control with protein-protein interaction) being utilized to generate an observable impact on biofilm formation.


P. fluorescens; Pseudomonas fluorecens; biofilm; c-di-GMP; network

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center