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Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2018 Jun;82(6):956-962. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2017.1415129. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

A novel function of geranylgeraniol in regulating testosterone production.

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a Laboratory of Nutrition, Graduate School of Agricultural Science , Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan.
b International Education and Research Center for Food Agricultural Immunology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science , Tohoku University , Sendai , Japan.
c Southeast Asian Food & Agriculture Science & Technology (SEAFAST) Center , Bogor Agricultural University , Bogor , Indonesia.


Isoprenoids play widely differing roles in various physiological processes in animals and plants. Geranylgeraniol (GGOH) is an isoprenoid found in plants, and is an important metabolic derivative in the isoprenoid/cholesterol synthesis pathway. Earlier studies focused on GGOH's ability to improve the side effects of bisphosphonate therapy by regulating the mevalonate pathway. More recently, the mevalonate pathway-independent effects of GGOH have been described, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, and neuroprotective activities. It is noteworthy that GGOH regulates the steroidogenesis pathway in testis-derived I-10 tumor cells. Testosterone is a hormone produced via steroidogenesis in testicles and plays a role in fetal development and the male reproductive system. GGOH enhanced testosterone and progesterone (its precursor) levels in I-10 cells by activating adenylate cyclase via cAMP/PKA signaling, without altering phosphodiesterase activity. These findings highlight the potential benefits of GGOH as a therapeutic agent for low testosterone levels, such as late-onset hypogonadism in men.


AC: adenylate cyclase; FOH: farnesol; GGOH: geranylgeraniol; GGPP: geranylgeranyl diphosphate; GOH: geraniol; Geranylgeraniol; IBMX: 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; MDL: MDL-12,330A; PDE: phosphodiesterase; PKA: protein kinase A; StAR: steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; cAMP/PKA; progesterone; steroidogenesis; testosterone

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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