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Rev Urol. 2017;19(3):149-155. doi: 10.3909/riu0776.

Clinical performance of the 4Kscore Test to predict high-grade prostate cancer at biopsy: A meta-analysis of us and European clinical validation study results.

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Tufts University School of MedicineBoston, MA.
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew York, NY.
Weill Cornell Medical CollegeNew York, NY.
OPKO DiagnosticsMiami, FL.
OPKO DiagnosticsWoburn, MA.


The 4Kscore® Test (OPKO Diagnostics, Woburn, MA) is a blood test utilized prior to a prostate biopsy to determine a patient's risk of high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) should the biopsy be performed, thus providing critical information in the clinical management of men with a suspicious prostate-specific antigen value or digital rectal examination result. Multiple US and European clinical studies confirmed that a prebiopsy 4Kscore Test has a high degree of discrimination for a subsequent discovery of high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the 4Kscore Test to discriminate between patients with and without high-grade PCa based on published clinical validation studies. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the eligible 4Kscore Test clinical validation studies was conducted. The pooled area under the curve (AUC) of the 4Kscore Test as reported from all the studies, and the heterogeneity among these studies were analyzed and repeated for subgroups of the studies. Twelve clinical validation studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising a total of 11,134 patients. The pooled AUC to discriminate for high-grade PCa for all 12 studies was 0.81 (fixed effects 95% CI, 0.80-0.83). Restricting the analysis to the six publications that used the contemporary 4Kscore Test algorithm led to very similar results (AUC 0.81; 95% CI, 0.79-0.83). Heterogeneity was high among all of the 12 studies, as well as among the six publications that used the contemporary 4Kscore Test (Cochrane's Q test, p = 0.001 for both); however, in both cases, after exclusion of a single outlying study with a much lower AUC, heterogeneity was no longer significant (p = 0.08 and p = 0.21). The pooled estimate of 4Kscore Test discrimination (AUC) for high-grade PCa is >0.80, and is consistent across multiple US and European clinical validation studies.


4Kscore Test; Biomarkers; Biopsy; Early detection; High-grade prostate cancer

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