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Surg Technol Int. 2017 Dec 22;31:243-252.

Acute Kidney Injury after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Clinical Review.

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Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, Erie, Pennsylvania.
Rubin Institute for Advanced Orthopedics, Center for Joint Preservation and Replacement, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland.
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY.



Patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) have an increased risk for progression to chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, and increased mortality. The outcomes of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients who develop AKI have remained controversial. The purpose of this review was to summarize and identify the current literature focused on 1) major risk factors, 2) short-term outcomes, and 3) costs associated with the development of perioperative AKI after TKA.


A literature search was performed using PubMed and Ovid to find literature relevant to AKI in TKA. All abstracts found via literature search were screened for relevancy to the study topics: (1) risk factors, (2) short-term outcomes, and (3) cost.


A total of 447 abstracts were initially identified. Irrelevant abstracts and those not in English were excluded from the study (n=336). Forty-five papers focused on risk factors associated with AKI, six papers focused on short-term outcomes, and seven discussed cost savings. Increased body mass index, metabolic syndrome, perioperative antibiotics, antihypertensive medications, and antibiotic-impregnated cement spacers are amongst the many modifiable patient and drug-induced risk factors associated with AKI after TKA. Perioperative renal injury is associated with increased inpatient and long-term mortality with increased length of stay and extended care facility discharge.


Increased length of stay and comorbidities have shown higher cost utilization and readmission rates. Inpatient and long-term complications and mortality are associated with postoperative AKI and a multidisciplinary perioperative approach is necessary to appropriately identify and, ultimately, prevent patients at higher risk for acute renal failure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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