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Cereb Cortex. 2018 Apr 1;28(4):1383-1395. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhx335.

Reconfiguration of Cortical Networks in MDD Uncovered by Multiscale Community Detection with fMRI.

He Y1, Lim S1, Fortunato S2,3, Sporns O1,3, Zhang L4,5, Qiu J6, Xie P7,8,9, Zuo XN4,5,10.

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Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
Indiana University Network Science Institute, Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47408, USA.
Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China.
Key Laboratory for Brain and Education Sciences, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning, Guangxi 530001, China.
Faculty of psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.
Institute of Neuroscience, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.
Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing 400016, China.
Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.
CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science and Research Center for Lifespan Development of Mind and Brain, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China.


Major depressive disorder (MDD) is known to be associated with altered interactions between distributed brain regions. How these regional changes relate to the reorganization of cortical functional systems, and their modulation by antidepressant medication, is relatively unexplored. To identify changes in the community structure of cortical functional networks in MDD, we performed a multiscale community detection algorithm on resting-state functional connectivity networks of unmedicated MDD (uMDD) patients (n = 46), medicated MDD (mMDD) patients (n = 38), and healthy controls (n = 50), which yielded a spectrum of multiscale community partitions. we selected an optimal resolution level by identifying the most stable community partition for each group. uMDD and mMDD groups exhibited a similar reconfiguration of the community structure of the visual association and the default mode systems but showed different reconfiguration profiles in the frontoparietal control (FPC) subsystems. Furthermore, the central system (somatomotor/salience) and 3 frontoparietal subsystems showed strengthened connectivity with other communities in uMDD but, with the exception of 1 frontoparietal subsystem, returned to control levels in mMDD. These findings provide evidence for reconfiguration of specific cortical functional systems associated with MDD, as well as potential effects of medication in restoring disease-related network alterations, especially those of the FPC system.

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