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Can J Hosp Pharm. 2017 Nov-Dec;70(6):407-414. Epub 2017 Dec 21.

Comparison of Decontamination Efficacy of Cleaning Solutions on a Biological Safety Cabinet Workbench Contaminated by Cyclophosphamide.

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is with the Pharmacy Department and Pharmacy Practice Research Unit, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Quebec.
, PharmD, MSc, is with the Pharmacy Department and Pharmacy Practice Research Unit, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Quebec.
is with the Centre de toxicologie du Québec, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, Quebec.
, BPharm, MSc, FCSHP, is with the Pharmacy Department and Pharmacy Practice Research Unit, CHU Sainte-Justine, and Faculty of Pharmacy, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec.


in English, French


Several studies have compared cleaning procedures for decontaminating surfaces exposed to antineoplastic drugs. All of the cleaning products tested were successful in reducing most of the antineoplastic drug quantities spilled on surfaces, but none of them completely removed residual traces.


To assess the efficacy of various cleaning solutions for decontaminating a biological safety cabinet workbench exposed to a defined amount of cyclophosphamide.


In this pilot study, specific areas of 2 biological safety cabinets (class II, type B2) were deliberately contaminated with a defined quantity of cyclophosphamide (10 μg or 107 pg). Three cleaning solutions were tested: quaternary ammonium, sodium hypochlorite 0.02%, and sodium hypochlorite 2%. After cleaning, the cyclophosphamide remaining on the areas was quantified by wipe sampling. Each cleaning solution was tested 3 times, with cleaning and wipe sampling being performed 5 times for each test.


A total of 57 wipe samples were collected and analyzed. The average recovery efficiency was 121.690% (standard deviation 5.058%). The decontamination efficacy increased with the number of successive cleaning sessions: from 98.710% after session 1 to 99.997% after session 5 for quaternary ammonium; from 97.027% to 99.997% for sodium hypochlorite 0.02%; and from 98.008% to 100% for sodium hypochlorite 2%. Five additional cleaning sessions performed after the main study (with detergent and sodium hypochlorite 2%) were effective to complete the decontamination, leaving no detectable traces of the drug.


All of the cleaning solutions reduced contamination of biological safety cabinet workbenches exposed to a defined amount of cyclophosphamide. Quaternary ammonium and sodium hypochlorite (0.02% and 2%) had mean efficacy greater than 97% for removal of the initial quantity of the drug (107 pg) after the first cleaning session. When sodium hypochlorite 2% was used, fewer cleaning sessions were required to complete decontamination. Further studies should be conducted to identify optimal cleaning strategies to fully eliminate traces of hazardous drugs.


antineoplastic drugs; decontamination; environmental surface contamination; hazardous drugs; occupational exposure


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