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Proc Biol Sci. 2018 Jan 10;285(1870). pii: 20172430. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2017.2430.

Identification of acutely sick people and facial cues of sickness.

Author information

1
Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden john.axelsson@su.se.
2
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.
4
Stress Research Institute, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
5
Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Immunobiology, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Essen, Germany.

Abstract

Detection and avoidance of sick individuals have been proposed as essential components in a behavioural defence against disease, limiting the risk of contamination. However, almost no knowledge exists on whether humans can detect sick individuals, and if so by what cues. Here, we demonstrate that untrained people can identify sick individuals above chance level by looking at facial photos taken 2 h after injection with a bacterial stimulus inducing an immune response (2.0 ng kg-1 lipopolysaccharide) or placebo, the global sensitivity index being d' = 0.405. Signal detection analysis (receiver operating characteristic curve area) showed an area of 0.62 (95% confidence intervals 0.60-0.63). Acutely sick people were rated by naive observers as having paler lips and skin, a more swollen face, droopier corners of the mouth, more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, and less glossy and patchy skin, as well as appearing more tired. Our findings suggest that facial cues associated with the skin, mouth and eyes can aid in the detection of acutely sick and potentially contagious people.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02529592.

KEYWORDS:

disease avoidance; facial cues; health; social perception

PMID:
29298938
PMCID:
PMC5784201
DOI:
10.1098/rspb.2017.2430
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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