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Chem Biodivers. 2018 Feb;15(2). doi: 10.1002/cbdv.201700506. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-melanogenic Activities of Essential Oils from Chrysanthemum boreale Makino at Different Harvesting Stages.

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Department of Cosmetic Science, College of Life and Health, Hoseo University, Asan, 31499, Korea.
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang, 414006, P. R. China.
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju, 27478, Korea.


In the present study, the chemical compositions and skin whitening-related antioxidant and anti-melanogenic effect of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Chrysanthemum borealeMakino (CBM) (CBMEOs) at vegetative, pre-flowering and full-flowering are investigated and contrasted among the three stages. The yields and components of the CBMEOs were different at each stage. The CBMEOs increased DPPH and ABTs scavenging activities and attenuated the α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in B16BL6 cells. Among CBMEO components, eugenol had the highest DPPH and ABTs scavenging activities and cuminaldehyde was the strongest inhibitor of α-MSH-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis. The CBMEOs in each stage showed the different levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and p38 MAPK. These findings demonstrate that the CBMEOs have antioxidative and anti-melanogenic activities in all the CBM harvesting stages, resulting in skin-whitening biological activities and that the levels of their component contents and bioactivities differ among the CBM harvesting stages. The CBMEOs may have the potential for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine.


Chrysanthemum boreale Makino ; bioactivity; chemical composition; essential oil; flowering stages

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