Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Jan 30;24(1):30-42. doi: 10.5056/jnm17105.

Gut Microbiota Dysfunction as Reliable Non-invasive Early Diagnostic Biomarkers in the Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease: A Critical Review.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy (JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru), Ootacamund, Tamilnadu, India.
JSS College of Pharmacy (JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru), Ootacamund, Tamilnadu, India.
Department of Pharmacology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.


Recent investigations suggest that gut microbiota affects the brain activity through the microbiota-gut-brain axis under both physiological and pathological disease conditions like Parkinson's disease. Further dopamine synthesis in the brain is induced by dopamine producing enzymes that are controlled by gut microbiota via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. Also alpha synuclein deposition and the associated neurodegeneration in the enteric nervous system that increase intestinal permeability, oxidative stress, and local inflammation, accounts for constipation in Parkinson's disease patients. The trigger that causes blood brain barrier leakage, immune cell activation and inflammation, and ultimately neuroinflammation in the central nervous system is believed to be due to the chronic low-grade inflammation in the gut. The non-motor symptoms that appear years before motor symptoms could be reliable early biomarkers, if they could be correlated with the established and reliable neuroimaging techniques or behavioral indices. The future directions should therefore, focus on the exploration of newer investigational techniques to identify these reliable early biomarkers and define the specific gut microbes that contribute to the development of Parkinson's disease. This ultimately should pave the way to safer and novel therapeutic approaches that avoid the complications of the drugs delivered today to the brain of Parkinson's disease patients.


Biomarkers; Constipation; Gastrointestinal microbiome; Humans alpha synuclein; Parkinson disease

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Inforang Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center