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Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci. 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):241-247. doi: 10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_12_17.

A competency-based simulation curriculum for surgical resident trauma resuscitation skills.

Author information

Department of General Surgery, Section of Acute Care Surgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.



Evidence-based curricula for nonprocedural simulation training in general surgery are lacking. Residency programs are required to implement simulation training despite this shortcoming. The goal of this project was the development of a simulation curriculum that measurably improves milestone performance and replaces traditional experienced-based training with a competency-based model.

Materials and Methods:

SimMan 3G® (Laerdal Medical, Wappingers Falls, NY, USA) was utilized for simulation. Needs assessment targeted trauma and shock resuscitation. Scenario design applied deliberate practice methodology. Learner performance data included items such as identification of shock physiology, resuscitation products used, volume delivered, use of resuscitation end-points, and knowledge of massive transfusion. Characteristics essential for a successful program were tabulated.


Forty-eight residents in postgraduate year (PGY) 2-5 participated representing 100% of the 48 eligible for the training. Senior residents (PGY 4 and 5) demonstrated near universal improvement. Junior residents (PGY 2 and 3) improved in some areas but showed more skill decay between sessions. Overall, milestone performance improved with each training session, and resident feedback was universally positive.


This prototype curriculum improved surgical resident competency in shock resuscitation in a simulated patient care environment. It can be modified to accommodate centers with fewer resources and can be implemented by clinical faculty. The essential characteristics of a successful program are identified.


Competency; milestones; resident; resuscitation; simulation; trauma

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