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Brain Behav Immun. 2018 Mar;69:386-398. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.12.013. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Increasing extracellular cGMP in cerebellum in vivo reduces neuroinflammation, GABAergic tone and motor in-coordination in hyperammonemic rats.

Author information

1
Laboratorio de Neurobiología, Centro Investigación Príncipe Felipe de Valencia, Spain.
2
Laboratorio de Neurobiología, Centro Investigación Príncipe Felipe de Valencia, Spain. Electronic address: vfelipo@cipf.es.

Abstract

Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to cognitive impairment and motor in-coordination in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Hyperammonemia-induced neuroinflammation mediates the neurological alterations in hepatic encephalopathy. Intracerebral administration of extracellular cGMP restores some but not all types of cognitive impairment. Motor in-coordination, is mainly due to increased GABAergic tone in cerebellum. We hypothesized that extracellular cGMP would restore motor coordination in hyperammonemic rats by normalizing GABAergic tone in cerebellum and that this would be mediated by reduction of neuroinflammation. The aims of this work were to assess whether chronic intracerebral administration of cGMP to hyperammonemic rats: 1) restores motor coordination; 2) reduces neuroinflammation in cerebellum; 3) reduces extracellular GABA levels and GABAergic tone in cerebellum; and also 4) to provide some advance in the understanding on the molecular mechanisms involved. The results reported show that rats with chronic hyperammonemia show neuroinflammation in cerebellum, including microglia and astrocytes activation and increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa and increased membrane expression of the TNFa receptor. This is associated with increased glutaminase expression and extracellular glutamate, increased amount of the GABA transporter GAT-3 in activated astrocytes, increased extracellular GABA in cerebellum and motor in-coordination. Chronic intracerebral administration of extracellular cGMP to rats with chronic hyperammonemia reduces neuroinflammation, including microglia and astrocytes activation and membrane expression of the TNFa receptor. This is associated with reduced nuclear NF-κB, glutaminase expression and extracellular glutamate, reduced amount of the GABA transporter GAT-3 in activated astrocytes and reduced extracellular GABA in cerebellum and restoration of motor coordination. The data support that extracellular cGMP restores motor coordination in hyperammonemic rats by reducing microglia activation and neuroinflammation, leading to normalization of extracellular glutamate and GABA levels in cerebellum and of motor coordination.

KEYWORDS:

Cerebellum; Extracellular GABA; Extracellular cGMP; Extracellular glutamate; Glutaminase; Hyperammonemia; Microglia activation; Motor in-coordination; Neuroinflammation; TNFa receptor

PMID:
29288802
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbi.2017.12.013

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